Who is Abraham Lincoln? Here is his life
Abraham Lincoln lived at a time when America was undergoing major changes. Non-stop developments in the political, social, economic and technological fields changed the country rapidly, but also increased polarization due to conflicting interests. Slavery was at the center of conflicts of interest. For centuries, blacks brought from Africa, especially in the southern states, were used as slaves, and human beings were bought and sold like a commodity. While these people, who were mainly used in cotton fields, were deprived of even the most basic rights, they were also a vital element of the southern economy.
Abraham Lincoln has passed into history as the President of the USA, which eliminated slavery. Lincoln did not advocate an idea that blacks were equal to whites. The president thought that blacks were lower than whites and should not have the same rights. But the fact that blacks are human, labor is sacred, and the belief that a person should be worth the money of his labor was in serious reaction in the southern states. It is believed that this view of Lincoln was due to the fact that all his labor was abused by his father without a response, in his childhood and in some of his youth.
Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809 as a son of Thomas and Nancy Lincoln in Hardin County, Kentucky. Thomas was a carpenter, and since his entire wealth of his father remained with his older brother after his death, he built his own farm with money he had hardly accumulated.
However, Kentucky State's cadastral system was quite primitive in those years and there were frequent problems due to the fact that property borders could not be determined precisely. When the deeds of his two lands were canceled by the state, he moved with his family to Indiana in 1816 because the government could guarantee the deeds given. While referring to this moving event in the years to come, Abraham Lincoln says that his father moved because he was "somewhat against slavery, but mainly due to land problems."
The Lincolns crossed the Ohio River and settled in Little Pigeon Creek. At the time, their families consisted of Thomas, Nancy, young Abraham, and their older sister, Sarah. While expressing his thoughts about these days in 1859, Lincoln said, “We settled in our new home when the province joined the Union. In Indiana, which is a very wild region, the forests were still full of wild bears and other animals ... ”.
Abraham started cutting wood so that the land could be opened to agriculture. Although he was quite young, he had a huge physique and worked until he was 23 years old without falling into an ax. Exceptions to this were the cultivation and harvest seasons of the field. Lincoln's body was so athletic and strong, whose youth was long enough to work out his muscles and numb, and he was so athletic and strong that many years later his autopsy doctors couldn't stop drawing attention.
After Abraham's mother died of "milk disease" in 1818, his father Thomas married Sarah Bush Johnston. However, the tragedies did not stop chasing the Lincoln family. In 1828, her older sister Sarah died while giving birth. These two deaths have had profound and life-long effects on Abraham. Lincoln had a melancholic, often depressed and death-prone mood, as observed and reported by those who knew him.
Lincoln had hardly been taught during his youth. "There wasn't much to motivate people to study in those days," he explained. It is difficult to believe that Lincoln, which is completely self-taught, has never been taught. Especially considering his command of English, his great speaking ability in front of the masses, his successful political and advocacy career, one is truly amazed. In those years, Lincoln spent most of his time at the plow, where he was commissioned by his father, or by cutting trees in the forest. His father, who was a very hardworking person, sometimes rented his neighbors as a windlass and did not even give him a single cent more than his income. It can be said that this situation, in which the value of a person's labor is usurped by another, is the infial created on Lincoln, which is the basis of his anti-slavery thoughts.
In 1830, Abraham's father decided to move again, and this time the family emigrated to Illinois and settled in Springfield. Lincoln was now twenty one years old. However, it was not possible to see a trace of the great achievements that he would reveal in the following years. Indeed, he was the hard-working, strong-powered, peasant rather than mind, typical peasant boy of a settler. Although he was working for his father again in these years, Abraham now had a strong desire to continue on his own and be independent of his father's management. Politics, on the other hand, was an area that he instinctively turned. The first example of this trend is the spontaneous speech he made about the improvement of the Sangamon River flowing through Springfield in 1830.
Abraham left the management of his father forever in 1831 and settled in New Salem. In untrained and shabby clothes, he did not seem to be a successful candidate for politicians at all. He started to earn his life by working as a shop assistant in a grocery store. In addition to his modest creation, he began to manifest himself with two highly valued characteristics among settlers at that time: his extraordinary physical strength and ability to tell fun stories, as well as his ability to joke. One of his first exhibits is wrestling with Jack Armstrong, the leader of local youth. As a result, after this struggle that he loved the society, he was nicknamed “Honest Abe” and his lifelong friendships with Armstrong started. After that, he started his self-education activities for the rest of his life by taking grammar lessons and reading Shakespeare.
In 1832, he tested his popularity in his new homeland by nominating it to the State Council. In his speech, which he declared his candidacy in March 1832, he emphasized his internal structuring and his support for education. Young Lincoln said that his greatest desire was "to be respected by his fellows," and he completed his speech with a statement that reflects his unique sorrowful style: "However, if my precious fellows would prefer to keep me in the background with their superior predictions, this is thanks to the immunity I have had to date. I would like to express that I will not be upset about the situation. ”
During the Black Hawk War, he served as the captain of the militia forces. In 1834 he won the election of the state council. He read the book "Commentaries on the Laws of England" where Sir William Blackstone describes the legal system of England and started to learn law. During these years, he became a very successful lawyer. Lincoln entered the Whig Party in 1841 with William Herndon. Lincoln was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1847. The criticisms he made to President James K. Polk during the American-Mexican War caused much attention. In 1848, he was among the members of the Whig, who was defeated against the Democrats in a text vote containing the discourse that "The war was started unnecessarily and unconstitutionally by President James K. Polk."
Lincoln, who started his lawyer career at Illinois Supreme Court, won many cases and managed to become one of the most successful lawyers of that period. Lincoln served as a lawyer in more than five thousand cases during his 23-year legal life in Illionis State.
The troubled situation in the regions acquired from Mexico brought Lincoln back to the policy scene. In 1854, Democrat Senator Stephen Douglas brought up the issue of opening western regions to settlement. While southern and northern politicians were struggling to maintain the current political balance, many settlers flocked to migrate to these areas. Both the northern and southern settlers were dwelling in the same places, and they wanted to apply the laws where they came from. This situation led to conflicts especially about slavery. The congress continued to give these lands the status of official territory, because the conflicting expectations of the southern and northerners could have very serious consequences. While many northerners regarded the west as a paradise for white settlers who did not compete with slave workers, the southerners hoped that they could live here without sacrificing their slaves.
Stephen Douglas ended this situation with the Kansas-Nebraska bill. According to this law, the people in the region would determine the law. According to this law called "People's Sovereignty", settlers living there would decide whether there would be slavery in their province. This bill, which Douglas found suitable for the American democratic tradition, became law in the spring of 1854, but caused the existing conflicts to become even more severe. Because both sides were trying to put pressure on the new regions by using every means they could to enforce their own laws. These developments led to the establishment of the Republican Party by those who opposed the spreading of slavery to the west. This problem enabled Abraham Lincoln to return to the policy scene, and the Republican Party announced his message to the whole nation. Lincoln, as one of the most influential figures of the Republican Party, participated in campaigns to support party candidates in the 1859 elections. In time, Lincoln's rising star strengthened his view that he was a person who worshiped the presidency, and was elected as the presidential candidate of the Republican Party in 1860.
Lincoln won the election with support from northern provinces with large populations, and the southerners saw this as the last straw. In a few months between Lincoln's election and oath, a group of states announced they had left the Union. The new president was waiting for a very difficult task:
After the fall of Sumter Castle, Lincoln gathered an army and decided to save the Union from falling apart. Despite extraordinary pressures, loss of life, defeats in battles, threats of death, he did not compromise the idea of rebuilding the Union during the civil war that lasted for four years. On January 1, 1863, it published the Declaration of Decency. With this declaration, he declared that all slaves in the Confederate states that were not under the sovereignty of the Union were freed. In 1864, he appointed Ulysses S. Grant as the Commander-in-Chief of the United States. Southerners started to decline now. Lincoln was re-elected president, together with Andrew Johnson (vice president). On April 9, 1865, one of the southern forces General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Grant with his army. Two days later, Lincoln gave a speech to the crowd gathered around the White House. He stated that he would support the granting of the right to vote for certain blacks among the topics he touched upon. This speech was very angry with actor John Wilkes Booth, who hated everything from the crowd south sympathizer and everything the president represented, and decided to kill the president. In fact, this was not Booth's first attempt to harm the president. In the late summer of 1864, Booth made plans to kidnap Abraham Lincoln. This young man, with a deep southern sympathizer, was spying in favor of the southerners, smuggling quinine and other medical supplies needed by the rebel army. His aim in kidnapping Lincoln was the hope of providing some support to the well-diluted ranks of the Confederation by releasing the southern captives in the hands of the north, in exchange for the president.
On April 14, 1865, Lincolns were at the Ford Theater to watch the play "Our American Cousin". During the game, Booth came to the theater, sneaked from behind, and shot at Lincoln at the back of his head at 22:15. The president was injured and was taken to Peterson House across the street. The next day, he closed his eyes at 07:22. This event made history as the first assassination assassination in America, and the people were overwhelmed. The reason for Lincoln's death was deep hatred and division among the people at that time. His body was taken by train to Springfield, Illinois, and buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery on May 4, 1865.